Tensile strength

  • maximal endurable stress
  • strength
  • tensile strength

Tensile strength is a characteristic material parameter which can be derived form a tensile test. It is the stress defined as the internal force of resistance per unit of area perpendicular to the direction of load application with which a material reacts to an external tensile load of specific magnitude. At a material's tensile strength the deformation of the workpiece or the elongation of the tensile specimen due to the external tensile load continues to increase while only the inner resistance decreases in relation to the cross sectional area prior to the loading. The visual result of the tensile test is that the tensile specimen constricts locally at the material's tensile strength, whereas up to this point it stretched over its entire length. This constriction is the reason for the specimen's failure by breakage if subjected to further loading.

Tensile strength is derived from the quotient of the maximal load and the cross sectional area prior to loading. A material's tensile strength thus denotes its maximal endurable stress.

Tensile test

  • elongation to fracture
  • material test
  • strength
  • tear test
  • tensile force
  • tensile loading
  • tensile specimen
  • tensile strength
  • tensile stress
  • tensile test
  • tensile testing machine
  • wire testing machine
  • wire test-piece

The tensile test according to DIN EN 10 002 is a static test method. It is the most important test for determining a material's mechanical parameters. A standardized test bar is subjected to an increasing tensile load in its axial direction. The test-piece, which is clamped at both ends in suitable clamping fixtures, has a specific test length which is bigger than its measured length.

The test is performed on a testing machine, often continuing until the test-piece fails. Tensile force and the change of length are recorded and plotted in a diagram. This is followed by presentation in a stress/strain diagram using the initial values for the material cross section and the test length. From the stress/strain diagram it is possible to derive parameters which express the material's behavior under external loads. The parameters most often determined are:

  • modulus of elasticity
  • stretching limit
  • tensile strength
  • elongation to fracture